Entdinglichung

… alle Verhältnisse umzuwerfen, in denen der Mensch ein erniedrigtes, ein geknechtetes, ein verlassenes, ein verächtliches Wesen ist … (Marx)

Zur geographischen Verteilung „Freier Produktionszonen“ in Indien

Posted by entdinglichung - 30. Oktober 2010

aus dem Artikel The Political Geography of Special Economic Zones in India von Partho Sarathi Ray, gefunden auf Sanhati, bleibt anzumerken, dass die beiden von reform-stalinistischen „K“Pen regierten Bundesstaaten West Bengal und Kerala da nicht besonders herausfallen:

„Where are there no SEZs?

We found from this map depicting the geographical distribution of SEZs in India that SEZs have been set up near the big cities, on fertile agricultural land, in coastal areas and in areas rich in water resources, and in the states where the governments have been most aggressively following neo-liberal economic policies. Now we will see which regions of India does not have SEZs and try to analyze the possible geographical-economic-political factors behind that.

It is quite obvious from the map that there are nearly no SEZs in north-east India and Kashmir. Because of the geo-political sensitivity of these border regions, the government apparently does not give approvals for setting up SEZs in these states. Also, the higher costs of setting up SEZs in these remote and less accessible areas, and also the higher costs of transport and communication, does not make it a lucrative option for SEZ developers to set up SEZs in these states. Basically, all the reasons for setting up SEZs in a particular region enumerated above are generally absent from these regions. Moreover, the long standing movements for self-determination in these regions would have also dissuaded corporations from setting up SEZs there. We also see that there are no SEZs in the desert areas of Rajasthan or the arid regions of north Karnataka because of lack of water and other infrastructure.

Probing the absence of SEZs in Bihar and UP

Two major states where there are few or no SEZs are Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. The Nitish Kumar government of Bihar has taken a policy decision not to set up SEZs in Bihar. According to political activists and analysts from Bihar, the reason is not that Nitish Kumar is anti-capital or hostile to the corporates. The reason is the socioeconomic conditions specific to Bihar and the caste support base of Nitish Kumar’s government. The ownership of most rural land in Bihar is still in the hands of landlords and big peasants. These consist of both the traditional landowning Bhumihar-Rajput castes as well as other backward castes (OBCs) like Yadavs, Kurmis and Koeris who have been empowered in the last two decades and gained landholdings. The latter are the main support base of Nitish Kumar and their interests would have been directly hurt if land for SEZs had been acquired in Bihar, leading to the breakdown of the caste support base behind Nitish Kumar’s government. This is the reason why the current Bihar government is against SEZs in principle.

It is for the same reason that Nitish Kumar’s government rejected the recommendations for land reforms by the Debabrata Bandopadhyay commission, as that would have also affected the caste-based land ownership patterns in Bihar.

In Uttar Pradesh, especially in the eastern Purvanchal region, where caste-based land ownership patterns are nearly similar, the earlier Samajwadi Party or BJP governments did not try to acquire land for the same reasons. On the other hand, the current Mayawati government, drawing its support mainly from the landless dalits, did not deem it a problem to hand over huge tracts of land to corporations for the Yamuna and Ganga Expressways and other real estate development projects.

Peoples’ resistance prevents SEZ clustering

Finally, we see that the most important factor preventing the establishment of SEZs is peoples’ resistance. It is peoples’ resistance which has stopped the establishment of SEZs at Nandigram and Raigad, it is protests by people which has stalled a number of SEZs in Maharashtra or Orissa or has led to the cancellation of all SEZs in Goa. A very remarkable thing that we see in this map is that a huge tract of land comprising the extreme western part of West Bengal, the south-western parts of Orissa, entire Jharkhand and Chattisgarh, eastern parts of Madhya Pradesh, the Telengana region in the north-west of Andhra Pradesh, and going upto Gadchiroli district in the extreme eastern part of Maharashtra is virtually free of SEZs. The few SEZs that are there in this region are situated around the big cities such as Ranchi or Raipur. Although there are SEZs in areas close to this region, even in other parts of the same states, and although this region provides fertile soil and abundant mineral and water resources, what is the possible reason that there are no SEZs in this region? We find that this region is completely superimposable with the adivasi-populated region of east-central India where the insurgents of the Communist Party of India (Maoist) are waging an armed struggle against the Indian state. It becomes apparent that the resistance of the adivasi people, led by the Maoists, has prevented the capitalists from establishing SEZs in this region. The security and stability that is required for setting up an SEZ, and the facility to make profits in an unhindered manner which the capitalists envisage in a SEZ, are absent in this region, with the state also being unable to guarantee the same. Therefore it is the struggle of the adivasis to protect their resources, their jal, jangal and jameen, that has turned out to be a stumbling block in the path of establishment of SEZs in this region.

Therefore, if the Indian state is able to crush the peoples’ resistance in this region through operation Green Hunt, the ongoing war being waged against the Maoists, we might see the establishment of SEZs by various corporations in this region to exploit the mineral and other natural resources.

A look at the geographical distribution of SEZs on the map of India today clearly shows the scale of the aggression of big capital over the resources of India, resources that include our agricultural land, waters, sea coasts and infrastructure. However, we also see how a spectrum of peoples’ struggles against this, ranging from the legal methods used in Goa, to the peaceful protests by the villagers of Jagatsinhpur in Orissa against the POSCO SEZ, to the armed struggle being waged in large parts of east-central India, has been able to stop the establishment of SEZs and successfully resist this corporate onslaught.“

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