Entdinglichung

… alle Verhältnisse umzuwerfen, in denen der Mensch ein erniedrigtes, ein geknechtetes, ein verlassenes, ein verächtliches Wesen ist … (Marx)

Archive for the ‘Panama’ Category

Vermischtes

Posted by entdinglichung - 26. Oktober 2012

Ungeordnet:

* Wole Soyinka: ‚If religion was taken away I’d be happy‘ (Pambazuka)

* Land Grab for Agribusiness in Mozambique: UNAC statement on the ProSavana Programme (ESSF)

* ‘Sovereign’ President: ‘I Am in Jail Because I Stood for Righteousness’ (SPLC/Hatewatch)

* Christine Vanden Daelen: Women are the real creditors of the public debt (International Viewpoint)

* Heftige Proteste in Panama halten an (Amerika 21)

* Für die Freilassung des Koordinators des CMSM (Rat der subsaharischen MigrantInnen in Marokko) und das Ende der Repression gegen Mitglieder der MigrantInnenorganisationen in Marokko (LabourNet)

* Rebolusyonaryong Partido ng Manggagawa – Mindanao (RPM-M): Struggle for Self-Determination of the Bangsamoro Revolutionary Fronts: A Historical Perspective and Current Realities (International Viewpoint)

* Rebolusyonaryong Partido ng Manggagawa – Mindanao (RPM-M): On the Peace Framework Signing between the GPH and the MILF (RPM-M)

* Nahwestexperte Peter Scholl-Latour (Sauvra)

*

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Posted in BäuerInnenbewegung, BRD, Feminismus & Frauenbewegung, Fundstücke, Internationales, Kapitalismus, Klassenkampf, Kommunismus, Literatur, Marokko, Menschenrechte - Freiheitsrechte, Mosambik, Nahost, Nationalismus, Nigeria, Panama, Patriarchat, Philippinen, Religion, Repression, Sozialismus, Spanischer Staat, Trotzkismus, USA | Verschlagwortet mit: , , | Leave a Comment »

Vermischtes

Posted by entdinglichung - 12. Juni 2012

ungeordnet:

* Bernard Schmid: Marokko: Erwerbslos? Beten hilft – sagt der Ministerpräsident… (Labournet)

* Gregor Kritidis: Aspekte der Klassenstruktur in Griechenland (SoPos)

* Michael Klockmann: Thesen zu: Männer und Emanzipation (Neue antikapitalistische Organisation? Na endlich!)

* Exchange between the FI Bureau and OKDE-Spartakos (Greek section) (International Viewpoint)

* Panama: indigenous Wounaan finally get land title (World War 4 Report)

* Anzelmo Guerrero (Revolutionary Workers Party of Mindanao): “The democratic content in self-determination struggles must be safeguarded” (International Viewpoint)

* [Vive l’Azawad libre !] Tout porte à croire qu’Ansar Adine se désintégrera de lui-même (Le Jura Libertaire)

* Who’s Reading Books on Wicca in the United Arab Emirates? (The Wild Hunt)

* Algérie – L’OAS, bénéficiaire majoritaire de la loi française du 23 février 2005 (historien) (Le Jura Libertaire)

* Do workers’ co-operatives help or hinder the building of a libertarian communist society? (Anarkismio)

* Eric Dupin: Mélenchon KO : le couple du Front de Gauche en grand péril (ESSF)

* Wem nützt die Fußball-EM? (RSO)

* Musik:

Posted in Algerien, Anarchismus, Antifa, Azawad, Feminismus & Frauenbewegung, Frankreich, Fundstücke, Fussball, Gewerkschaft, Griechenland, Indigena-Bewegung, Kapitalismus, Klassenkampf, Kolonialismus, Kommunismus, Mali, Menschenrechte - Freiheitsrechte, Musik, Nationalismus, Panama, Patriarchat, Philippinen, Polen, Religion, Sozialismus, Sport, Streik, Trotzkismus, Ukraine, Vereinigte Arabische Emirate, Wahlen | Verschlagwortet mit: , | Leave a Comment »

Neues aus den Archiven der radikalen (und nicht so radikalen) Linken

Posted by entdinglichung - 12. Januar 2011

Das erste Update 2011, mit vermutlich einigen Lücken, ältere Archiv-Updates und Hinweise zu weiteren linken Archivalien unter „Sozialistika“ und im Download-Archiv, … weitere Hinweise bei Poumista und der Militant erinnert an Frank Emi und Carol DeBerry:

Red Mole Rising:

* Black Dwarf, Mai 1968

Freedom Socialist Party (FSP):

* Clara Fraser: The love that dare not speak its name in the army (1993)

Rassembler, diffuser les archives des révolutionnaires (RaDAR):

* IVe internationale: Bulletin du secrétariat européen de la IVe internationale, August 1945
* Parti communiste internationaliste (PCI): Pourquoi les trotskystes veulent une constituante unique et souveraine. Une constituante ? Oui. Domestiquée ? Non. (1945)
* Parti communiste internationaliste (PCI) Du travail ! (1945)
* Parti communiste internationaliste (PCI) Le Soviet, 25. April 1944 (Untergrundzeitung)
* IVe internationale: IVe internationale, Januar-Februar 1947
* Opposition communiste: Contre le courant, 28. Juni 1929
* Parti communiste internationaliste (PCI) La Vérité Renault, 27. September 1949

La Bataille Socialiste:

* Le Réveil Communiste: Che fare? (1927)

Marxists Internet Archive (MIA):

* National Committee of the Spartacus Youth Clubs of America: Young Spartacus, 1933
* National Committee of the Spartacus Youth Clubs of America: Young Spartacus, 1934
* National Committee of the Spartacus Youth Clubs of America: Young Spartacus, 1935
* Karl Marx: Carta ao Parlamento do Trabalho (1854)
* Felix Morrow: Spanien 1931-1937 – Revolution och kontrarevolution (1938)
* Raya Dunayewskaya: The Evolution of a Social Type (1953)
* José Carlos Mariátegui: Trotsky, 1924 (1924)
* Leo Trotzki: Lessons Of The Capitulations (Obituary Reflections) (1930)
* Leo Trotzki: Lenin e la guerra imperialista (1938)
* Leo Trotzki: The July Plenum and the Right Danger (1928)
* Leo Trotzki: De spanska kommunisternas uppgifter (1930)
* Leo Trotzki: Open Letter to the Communist Party (The State of the Party and the Tasks of the Left Opposition) (1930)
* Leo Trotzki: Maurin and the Anarcho-Syndicalists (1931)
* Leo Trotzki: The Catalonian Federation’s Platform (1931)
* Leo Trotzki: Klassen, partiet och ledarskapet: Varför besegrades det spanska proletariatet? (Frågor för den marxistiska teorin) (1940)
* Max Shachtman: The People’s Front. The New Panacea of Stalinism
* Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin: ácio às Teses Sobre a Questão da Conclusão Imediata de uma Paz Separada e Anexionista (1918)
* Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin: Para a História da Questão da Paz Infeliz (1918)
* Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin: Sosialismi ja uskontovelyn trent: (1905)
* Report of 1889 Paris Congress from The Times of London
* Karl Kautsky: Letter from Kautsky to Upton Sinclair (1909)
* Karl Kautsky: Letter from Kautsky to Upton Sinclair (1909)
* Dora Montefiore: , From Melbourne (1911)
* Evelyn Trent/M.N. Roy: Un Manifiesto Comunista Indio(1920)
* Evelyn Trent: El hambre en Rusia: ¿Cómo han ayudado los estados capitalistas? (1922)
* Evelyn Trent: La revolución en Asia Central – La lucha por el poder en la Santa Bujará (1924)
* Pierre Frank: The Marty-Tillon Affair Reveals How Our Ideas Have Penetrated the PCF (1952)
* La Vérité des Travailleurs: The Djilas Affair (1955)
* Daniel Norman/Hugo Dewar: Marx and Soviet Reality (1955)
* Daniel Norman/Hugo Dewar: Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Hungary (1957)
* Daniel Norman/Hugo Dewar: Assassins at Large (1951)
* Georges Darien: I Today Understand Many Things (1890)
* Jean Jaures: The Insurrection of August 10, 1792 (1901)
* Max Horkheimer: Judarna och Europa (1939)
* Max Beer: Socialismens Historia – Andra bandet (1926)
* Audrey Farrell: My Favourite Books (1994)
* Audrey Farrell: Cathy clear off (1994)
* Audrey Farrell: Never a fair cop (1997)
* Audrey Farrell: Addicted to profit – capitalism and drugs (1997)
* Audrey Farrell: Outcast London (1998)
* Tony Cliff: Mao and the Workers (1967)
* Motor City Labor League (Marxist-Leninist): Where We’re At; Where We’re Going
* Wilfried Berghahn: Reservat i celluloid (1958)
* Världssocialism nr 15 – Teknologi. Resurser. Befolkning (1977)

Materialien zur Analyse von Opposition (MAO):

* Henry Kissinger. Beiträge zur Biografie 1970 bis 1976

La Presse Anarchiste:

* La Vie Ouvrière n°9/10, Februar 1910
* weiteres aus der Reihe La Brochure Mensuelle:
** Petr Kropotkin: La Loi et l’Autorité — La révolution sera-t-elle collectiviste (1923)
** Han Ryner: Une conscience pendant la guerre, l’affaire Gaston Rolland (1923)
** Rhillon: De Briey à la Rhur, les capitalismes en guerre 1903/1923 (1923)
** Elisée Reclus: L’anarchie et l’église (1923)
** Joseph Déjacques: A bas les chefs — L’autorité et la paresse (1923)
** Rhillon: Qu’est-ce que la Propriété ? selon J.-P. Proudhon — La propriété fille du travail (1923)
** G.Butaud/S. Zaïkowska: Tu seras végétalien ! (1923)
** Herbert Spencer: Le droit d’ignorer l’Etat (1923)
** Petit manuel d’Epitecte (1923)

Collectif Smolny:

* Octobre: Le prolétariat mondial doit riposter aux assassins de Moscou (1938)
* Ouvrier: Extrait d’une lettre de Miasnikov sur la déclaration Rakovski et les 3 critères trotskistes (1930)
* Ouvrier: L’Opposition capitularde jugée par le Groupe ouvrier russe (Une lettre de G. Miasnikov) (1930)
* Sam Moss: On the Impotence of Revolutionary Groups (1939)
* BILAN: Le capitalisme français n’a pas renvoyé Blum (1937)
* BILAN: Trotski pourra-t-il rester au Mexique ? (1937)
* Helmut Wagner: Theses on Bolshevism (1934)
* Louis Janover: Du capitalisme libéral au capitalisme libéré (1984)
* Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin: Une leçon dure, mais nécessaire (1918)
* Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin: Interventions sur la question de la paix de Brest-Litovsk (1918)
* Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin: Une paix malheureuse (1918)

LibCom:

* Isaak Dashkovskij: Letter to Sapronov (1929)
* Tom Bramble: War on the waterfront (1998)
* Albert Meltzer: I Couldn’t Paint Golden Angels: Sixty Years of Commonplace Life and Anarchist Agitation (1995)
* The Red Menace: Why the Leninists Will Win (1977)
* The Red Menace: Portugal 1975 (1976)
* The Red Menace: Our two cents‘ worth… (1976)
* The Red Menace: Looking at the conference (1976)
* The Red Menace: Popular Education Conference (1976)
* The Red Menace: What is Libertarian Socialism? (1977)
* The Red Menace: What is The Red Menace? (1977)
* The Red Menace: A Tale of Two Offices (1976)
* The Red Menace: Organizing in a small town (1976)
* Declaration of the Anarchist Communist Federation of North America (1980)
* Libertarian Workers Group resigns from ACF (1981)
* Fire By Night Organizing Committee: The Continuing Appeal of Authoritarianism (~ 1999)
* Love & Rage: Love & Rage Members Handbook (1997)
* Chris Day: The Historical Failure of Anarchism (1996)
* Paul Trewhela: Financial Sanctions and the Future of South Africa (1990)
* Federation of Revolutionary Anarchist Collectives (FRAC): FRAC April 2003 Conference Summary (2003)
* Federation of Revolutionary Anarchist Collectives (FRAC): Building Revolutionary Nuclei (200?)
* Federation of Revolutionary Anarchist Collectives (FRAC): Claim No Easy Victories: An Anarchist Analysis of ARA and its Contributions to the Building of a Radical Anti-Racist Movement (200?)
* Federation of Revolutionary Anarchist Collectives (FRAC): FRAC Introductory Booklet (2004)
* Nightvision Anarchist Collective: Tasks and Perspectives (200?)
* Tom Brown: Story of the Syndicalist Workers‘ Federation: Born in Struggle (1968)
* Newcastle Fights The Fascists (~ 1991)

The Cedar Lounge Revolution:

* Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA): DIRECT RULE: Civil Rights NOT Civil War (1972)
* Official Sinn Féin: Imperialism and the Irish Nation, Repsol No. 9 (197?)

Centro de Documentación de los Movimientos Armados (CeDeMA):

* Grupo Avanzada Marxista (GRAMA): Busquemos un camino (1966)
* Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN): Proclama al pueblo colombiano de Camilo Torres (1966)
* Frente Democrático Revolucionario (FDR): Llamado del FDR a funcionarios y empleados del sector público (1981)
* Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN): Situación revolucionaria y escalada intervencionista en la guerra salvadoreña (1984)
* Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR): Diálogo abierto en la izquierda para estrechar las filas del pueblo (1976)
* Ejército Rebelde: ¡Revolución, sí, golpe militar, no! (1959)
* Frente Patriótico Manuel Rodríguez (FPMR): FPMR. El tabú del conflicto armado en Chile (1995)
* Movimiento de Liberación Nacional 29 de Noviembre (MLN-29): Testamento político de Rolando Alberto Pérez Palomino (1984)
* Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional (FSLN): Conclusiones Políticas. Jornadas Insurreccionales Sandinistas (1979)
* Arturo Alape: La reinserción del EPL: ¿esperanza o frustración? (1996)

Workers‘ Liberty:

* Workers Liberty, Nr. 7, Juni 1987
* Workers Liberty, Nr. 12/13, August 1989
* Workers Liberty, Nr. 14, Juli 1990
* Workers Liberty, Nr. 16, Februar 1992
* John McIlroy: The roots of Blairism (1995)
* Sean Matgamna: Ernest Mandel 1923-95 (1995)
* In memory of Jo Walker and David Hague (1995)
* The Orange Order and its Catholic counterparts (1995)

The Irish Election Literature Blog:

* The Workers Party (WP): Michael Enright , Catherine Murphy – European Elections Leinster (1989)
* The Workers Party (WP): Submission by The Workers Party on Seanad Reform to Seanad Sub Committee on Procedure and Privileges (2003)

The Militant:

* 25, 50 and 75 years ago (1936/1961/1986)
* Thomas Sankara: Women’s liberation and African freedom struggle

Espace contre ciment:

* Robert Paris: Psychanalyse, culture et néoténie (1962)
* Pier Paolo Pasolini: Le « discours » des cheveux (1973)
* Pier Paolo Pasolini: Acculturation et acculturation (1973)
* Jörg Asseyer: Jenseits von Grund und Ordnung. Nachwort zu Skepsis und Mystik (1978)

Archive.org:

* Industrial Union Party (IUP): Industrial Unionist, August 1933
* Industrial Union Party (IUP): Industrial Unionist, November 1933
* Socialist Party of Canada/Workers Socialist Party of the United States (SPC/WSPUS): Western Socialist, Dezember 1939
* Friends of Soviet Russia: Soviet Russia, Nr. 4 & 5 (1921)
* Philipp Krantz: Geshikhe fun sotsyalizm : der amf far glaykhhay in di gezelshafen un melukhes fun ale un naye tsayen (1920)
* Socialist Party of America (SPA): Report by the Executive Committee, National Lettish [Latvian] Organization, SP to the National Convention (1912)
* Socialist Party of America (SPA): Report Submitted in Behalf of the Jewish Socialist Agitation Bureau to the Socialist Party National Convention (1912)
* Socialist Party of America (SPA): Report of Bohemian Section to the Socialist Party National Convention (1912)
* Socialist Party of America (SPA): Report of Scandinavian Section to the Socialist Party National Convention (1912)
* Socialist Party of America (SPA): Report of the Polish Alliance to the Socialist Party National Convention (1912)
* Socialist Party of America (SPA): Report of Polish Section to the Socialist Party National Convention (1912)
* Socialist Party of America (SPA): Report of Italian Section to the Socialist Party National Convention (1912)
* Socialist Party of America (SPA): Proceedings of the National Convention of the Socialist Party, part 3 (1912)
* Socialist Party of America (SPA): Report of the Finnish Translator-Secretary to the Socialist Party Natonal Convention (1912)
* Benjamin Tucker: Statna socialism a anarchism : pokud se shoduja a v cem se rozlisuja (1901)

Rustbelt Radical:

* Rosa Luxemburg: Order Prevails In Berlin (1919)

Fundación Andreu Nin:

* Ramon Fernández Jurado: Walter Schwartz. Un hermano alemán nos ha dejado (1982)

Labournet Austria:

* Die deutsche Revolution 1917/18/19 – Tragisches Lehrstück sozialdemokratischer Politik (Film)

Projekt Gutenberg:

* Walter Benjamin: Städtebilder (193?)
* August Bebel: Die mohamedanisch-arabische Kulturperiode (1883)

Mondialisme.org:

* Dave Crouch/Ni patrie ni fron­tières: Les bol­che­viks, l’Islam et la liberté reli­gieuse/Le SWP et l’Islam ou les silences des agneaux (trotskystes) (2004)

Posted in 1968, Anarchismus, Antifa, Antimilitarismus, Antisemitismus, Australien, Bildung, BRD, Britannien, Burkina Faso, Chile, El Salvador, Feminismus & Frauenbewegung, Film, Frankreich, Gewerkschaft, Indien, Internationales, Irland, Italien, Jugoslawien, Kanada, Kapitalismus, Katalonien, Kirche, Klassenkampf, Kolumbien, Kommunismus, Kuba, LBGT, Linke Geschichte, Literatur, Maoismus, Marxismus, Menschenrechte - Freiheitsrechte, Mexiko - Mexico, Nahost, Nationalismus, Nicaragua, Nordirland, Panama, Patriarchat, Philosophie, Portugal, Psychoanalyse, Rassismus, Religion, Repression, Revolution, Russland, Südafrika - Azania, Schweden, Sowjetunion, Sozialismus, Sozialistika - Linke Archivalien, Spanischer Staat, Stalinismus, Streik, StudentInnenbewegung, Trotzkismus, Ungarn, USA, Usbekistan | 1 Comment »

Zum chinesischen Imperialismus in Lateinamerika

Posted by entdinglichung - 10. Juni 2010

Quelle: International Viewpoint

What is China’s interest in Latin America?

Virginia de la Siega

The People’s Republic of China (PRC) has been slowly but surely emerging as world power for the last 30 years. It has become the world’s third-largest economy after the United States and Japan and it’s leaving behind Germany as the world’s top exporter. Nor is China any longer a manufacturer of low value, low technology items: it has become the world’s largest producer both of wind turbines and solar panels, and last year its auto sales doubled to more than a million vehicles a month surpassing the United States.

If to that we add that it has the world’s third-largest defence budget, and the largest national population (1.3 billion people), it quickly becomes evident that China does not have sufficient oil, natural gas, aluminium, copper, or iron to satisfy its energy and manufacturing needs, and that it necessitates trade partners to sustain its growth.

China is also a key player on the world political scene. Besides the strategic role it plays in Asian geopolitics and its status as a nuclear nation, it is a member of the U.N. Security Council, the World Trade Organization, the Group of 77 Developing Nations, the Asia Pacific Economic Coopera¬tion Group and the Inter-American Development Bank. China has also observer status in the Organization of American States (OAS) and keeps a peacekeeping mission in Haiti.

Moreover, China has started to show the first elements of an imperialist state in the making. It has strengthened its diplomatic presence and economic influence, often referred to as “soft power,” in the developing world, specifically in Africa, Latin America, and Southeast Asia. It has tried to earn international goodwill through financing infrastructure and natural resource development projects, assisting in the execution of such projects, and backing PRC state enterprise ventures in many developing countries. If in terms of development grants China is a relatively small source of global aid, when its commercial and concessional loans, technical assistance, and state-sponsored or subsidized investments are included, the PRC becomes a major source of economic assistance. [1]

If the role that China has been playing in Africa has attracted much attention, the one played in Latin America has not nearly as much. And yet, bilateral trade between China and Latin America has been expanding significantly since November 2004, when China’s president Hu Jintao promised to invest $100bn in the region.

According to the Chinese Ministry of Commerce, Chinese investments have mounted from $200 million per year in 1975 to $70.2 billion per year in 2006 and are predicted to reach $100 billion per year in 2010. [2] Even though China’s trade figures in the region amount to much less than those of the United States US ($560bn) or the EU ($250bn), the trend is significant. A sign of the importance the PRC gives to the region is the publication of its first ever policy paper on Latin America on 5th November 2008. The trade and investment relationships have been complemented by other contacts, including high-level delegations of political, cultural, trade and military officials, and China’s participation in the Latin American institutions above mentioned.

China’s twofold strategy in Latin America

The PRC has defined two strategies for Latin America. The first is economic: to secure China’s access to the primary materials that it needs for its economic growth and to find a market for its manufactured goods. The second strategy is mainly political: to obtain diplomatic recognition from those countries still recognizing Taiwan as the government of China.

Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Venezuela and Cuba play a major role in the first strategy.

Brazil, the first economy of the region, is clearly China’s most important partner, both as a market for Chinese goods and as a source of raw materials. Brazil supplies some 45 % of all PRC soybean imports and is also the source for other agricultural products, as well as iron and petroleum. The PRC has launched several major collaborative projects with Brazil in these sectors. Brazil’s status as a large middle-income country also makes it important as a market for Chinese goods, including electronics, machinery and labour intensive manufactured goods, such as footwear and toys. Brazil possesses a nuclear industry and uranium resources — important to China as it expands its own nuclear industry to meet its energy needs. The Brazilian aerospace industry has created multiple opportunities for collaboration with China, including technology.

The global recession emphasized and magnified the importance of China to Brazil. While Brazilian exports to the United States fell 37.8 % in the first quarter of 2009, exports to the PRC increased by 62.7 %. Consequently, in the first half of 2009, China became Brazil’s number one export destination. China has also emerged as a key financier for Brazil’s projects to develop the newly discovered deepwater oil reserves in the Campos and Santos basins. When in May 2009, China and Brazil signed an agreement for a $10 billion loan from China Development Bank, the president of Petrobras, Sergio Gabrielli, noted, “There isn’t someone in the U.S. government that we can sit down with and have the kinds of discussions we’re having with the Chinese”. [3] According to this agreement, the loan was given in exchange for a guaranteed supply of oil over the next decade. The two nations are also pursuing a range of important joint ventures, including joint production of jets, the China-Brazil Earth Research Satellite (CBERS) program and other space cooperation programs.

As in the case of Brazil, China’s economic policy in relation to Argentina, the other large South American economy, is not restricted to buying natural resources. Argentina has collaborated with China in space projects, such as a satellite laser ranging project in Argentina’s San Juan University, and has discussed collaboration in designing a new-generation nuclear reactor.

However, China main interest is in Argentina’s mining and oil sectors. In 2003, the CNPC (China National Petroleum Company) acquired a stake in the Argentine oil and gas firm Pluspetrol, which operates fields in northern Argentina and Peru, and there has already been an investment from the Chinese-Angolan company Sonogol. In May 2010, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) purchased a 50 percent stake in Argentina’s Bridas Holdings for $3.1 billion. There have also been rumoured talks between the Spanish firm Repsol-YPF and CNOOC regarding Repsol-YPF’s Argentine holdings –although none of the possibilities raised has yet materialized.

The USA views with suspicion the PRC financial deals to facilitate commerce with Argentina. In March 2009, China signed a $10.2 billion debt swap with Argentina, [4] in what the American government considers an expanding challenge to the primacy of the dollar as an international reserve currency. [5] It is to be noted that Brazilian President Lula explicitly argued for working with China to move away from the dollar during his trip to China in May 2009. [6]

The PRC has also been courting Argentina as a purchaser of its own manufactured goods, but here, the relationship has been much more conflictive owing to Argentina’s plan to redevelop some industrial sectors.

For two of the three Latin American members of APEC (Asian Pacific Economic Co-operation), Peru and Chile, China has become a crucial trading partner. According to UN figures, in 2007 nearly 40% of Chile’s exports went to the Asia-Pacific region, mostly China. For Peru, the figure was 19%. This has moved countries such as Colombia and Costa Rica to want to join APEC.

The PRC has invested in Peru in the oil and gas sectors. It has purchased fishing fleets and fishmeal processing facilities, and has made investments in the mines in Toromocho, Rio Blanco and Maracona. This is not surprising if we consider that 85.2% of Peru’s exports to China are copper, fish flour and iron ore.

The PRC has an interest in Bolivia’s gas and iron resources. Bolivia has the second largest natural gas reserves in South America, behind only Venezuela. Bolivia’s lack of sea access poses a problem, but the introduction of new refining technologies, such as the liquefaction of gas or its use in producing other fuels, increase the feasibility of exporting Bolivian gas to China. And Evo Morales has opened up a number of possibilities for an expanded Chinese presence in that country: a concession has been signed to the Chinese conglomerate Shandong Llueng, granting them the right to develop all or part of the iron deposits at El Mutún—one of the largest in the world, if not the largest; and Chinese oil companies have signed agreements to help YPFB to overcome some of the problems with capital and experience which the nationalization of the country’s oil brought about.

The investments in Ecuador have also been huge and have had diplomatic effects. China has invested in oilfields, port operations and pipeline assets. In 2003, China bid on concessions to Ecuador’s major oil fields. The oil operations by CNPC have caused serious problems with the indigenous populations in Tarapoa and Succumbios particularly because of the lack of interest of Chinese investments in the preservation of the environment. The decision by the Ecuadorian regime of Rafael Correa not to renew the agreement giving the U.S. access to Manta was the necessary first step to invite the Chinese to develop the airport into a hub for trans-pacific flights, even though the PRC never made any explicit suggestions.

China has also set up investments and joint ventures with state-owned petroleum and mineral extractive companies such as PdVSA (Venezuela), YPFB (Bolivia), Petrobras (Brazil), and Cubaniquel (Cuba).

The case of Panama is slightly different due to its strategic position. Panama’s primary-product exports or its potential as an import market are minor. However, as owner of the Panama Canal, it has an enormous strategic value for China. The PRC firm Hutchison-Whampoa, with alleged connections to the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA), owns property on either end of the Panama Canal, giving it visibility over military and commercial traffic transiting the canal, and potentially serving as a staging area for future operations to control transit through this strategic checkpoint.

China’s political strategy affects mainly Central America and the Caribbean. Here, the PRC has mainly focused on using economic and diplomatic levers to secure diplomatic recognition from those countries still recognizing Taiwan as the government of China. Of the remaining 23 countries that still recognise Taiwan, 11 are found in this region. So far, Costa Rica is the only country that changed alliances in 2007, and has been consequently rewarded: Hu Jintao visited Costa Rica in 2008 to inaugurate a new football stadium donated by the PRC.

Who benefits?

The China-Latin America relationship is not win-win for all partners. As of 2005, the trade surpluses that Latin American countries had with China have been reversed. Nowadays, 93% of China’s exports to Central and South America consist in manufactured goods (25% of textiles and garments, and 44% machinery and equipment).This is negatively affecting the efforts of the most advanced Latin American economies to develop their own local industry and is beginning to create problems.

Mexico, Latin America’s third APEC member has been particularly affected for two main reasons: its close ties with the US economy and the overlap between Chinese and Mexican exports. Of Mexico’s 20 main exporting sectors, 12 are in open competition with China. This not only reduces Mexico’s possibility to export to China to only about 3% of its total exports, but it also affects its trade relations with the USA. In 2003, China ousted Mexico from its position as the second largest exporter to the USA. With a $28bn trade deficit with China, it is no wonder that the Mexican government wants to review the trade agreements. An official of the Mexican government complained that “for every $30 of Chinese goods that Mexico imports, Mexico only exports $1 of Mexican goods to China.”

Something similar is happening with the textile industry from Central America, which is being smothered by Chinese textile exports.

Another example of tension in the relations with the largest Latin American economies is the case of Argentina. Argentina supplies 23 % of all soy product imports of the PRC. China has suspended an order for more than 2 million tons of soya oil, part of which is in transit, because Argentina decided to tax shoes imported from China as a measure to protect its local producers. Argentina’s commercial deficit with China in 2009 reached $1200 million and for the first two months of 2010 it is already $600 billion. The Argentinean government is not willing to let it increase. China’s response has nothing to envy to those of other imperialist powers when their “commercial rights” are affected by uppity emerging countries.

Basically, Latin American governments find two problems with Chinese investments: 1) their main purpose is to serve China’s development needs by facilitating the export of the raw materials, often imposing the demand that a significant portion of project to obtain and process those materials and services be sourced in China; 2) they have found that the level of Chinese direct foreign investment in the region is not as high as it seems, and that much of the official figures go into offshore tax havens.

What is clear is that Chinese trade with Latin America has fuelled a boom in the region’s commodity-export sectors in countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru and Venezuela, at the same time that Latin American manufacturing sectors have been badly damaged by expanded competition from Chinese goods. The situation is even worse for countries and regions with large manufacturing sectors and limited primary-product export sectors such as Mexico and Central America.

China: The new kid in the American’s backyard

Does China want to replace the USA as the ruling power in the region? Nothing’s farther from the truth. So far, the PRC has clearly shown that its main concern is not to undermine the Chinese-US relation, which it considers of the outmost importance from the strategic and economic point of view. At most, the PRC would be willing to occupy the empty spaces that the USA may leave. The strongest Latin American economies have been trying to profit from the power triangle that China’s policy is bringing about with diverse luck.

China’s concern not to cross the USA also affects its relations with Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, and above all Cuba. China has signed military agreements with Venezuela, but this should not be seen as an outright backing of the Bolivarian regime. Even if China has signed an extensive military cooperation with Venezuela, it is doing so reluctantly, forced by its need for oil. To some extent, China is unwillingly filling a gap created by the deterioration of Venezuela’s political and military relationship with the United States. The fact that the Venezuelan government has frustrated the operations of some Chinese corporations such as CNPC shows that the relations between the two countries are not free of contradictions.

The relation with Cuba is slightly different from that with Venezuela. In spite of China’s pragmatic approach to foreign policy, there is still a slight ideological element at play. The economic relations are closer, and the PRC ranks ahead of Spain and second to Venezuela among Cuba’s trade partners. China also played a key role in upgrading the Cuban Air Defence System, and has frequently exchanged high-ranking Chinese military delegations. Cuba also supplies the PRC with strategic materials and agricultural products. In addition to sugar, Cuba also has both offshore petroleum and the world’s largest proven nickel reserves. In January 2005, China’s oil and gas giant Sinopec Corp. signed an agreement with Cuba’s state-run Cubapetroleo (Cupet) to jointly produce oil on the island. However, the relationship is not without problems. A $500 million joint venture to produce 68,000 tonnes a year of ferro-nickel in eastern Cuba signed between Cubaniquel and the Chinese firm MinMetals was abruptly cancelled, and the concession was given, instead, to Venezuela.

Conclusion

How the relationship between China and Latin America will develop in the future is a matter of speculation, although certain tendencies are already clear.

– The PRC has no interest in damaging his strategic economic and political relation with the USA. The relation with the governments in Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador and Cuba has been restricted mostly to commercial agreements in which it has proved to be practically the sole beneficiary.

– The relation between the PRC and Latin America is one of unequal partners owing to the potential of the former’s economy and the limits of latter’s. This is a source of constant conflict with those emerging economies —like Mexico and Argentina— that have plans to develop an independent industry and set up barriers to defend their national manufacturers from Chinese exports.

– Another source of conflict with Chinese investments is the fact that Chinese direct investments seek high levels of return regardless of social, labour or environmental conditions. This has already created conflicts with native populations in Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela and Argentina.
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Posted in Argentinien, Bolivien, Brasilien, Chile, China, Ecuador, Internationales, Kapitalismus, Kuba, Lateinamerika, Panama, Peru, Stalinismus, USA, Venezuela | 3 Comments »

Zwei Gewerkschafter in Panama ermordet

Posted by entdinglichung - 28. August 2007

Osvaldo Lorenzo Pérez und Luigi Antonio Argüeles wurden am 14. bzw. 16. August während Protesten gegen Entlassungen ermordet, im ersten Fall offenbar von einem von der brasilianischen Baufirma Norberto Odebrecht angeheuerten Killer, im zweiten Fall von der Polizei. Beide Ermordeten gehörten der Gewerkschaft Sindicato Único Nacional de Trabajadores de la Industria de la Construcción y Similares (SUNTRACS) an. Baufirmen wie Norberto Odebrecht setzen derzeit Gewerkschaftsmitglieder unter Druck, sich der unter der Kontrolle des Kapitals stehenden Streikbrechergewerkschaft SINDICOPP (derartige Pseudogewerkschaften gibt es auch in der BRD, heissen hier CGB und AUB) anzuschliessen. Ein Protestschreiben des Internationalen Gewerkschaftsbundes kann hier eingesehen werden.

Posted in Gewerkschaft, Klassenkampf, Menschenrechte - Freiheitsrechte, Panama, Repression | Leave a Comment »